This report examines innovative mechanisms that can help attract new financial resources into water and sanitation services. In particular, it focuses on mobilising market-based repayable financing (such as loans, bonds and equity) as a way of bridging the financial gap to meet the water-related Millennium Development Goals and other crucial sector objectives. The Camdessus and Gurrķa reports, published seven and four years ago, respectively, formulated a number of recommendations in this area. This report examines the extent to which these recommendations have been implemented. It looks at the rapidly evolving global context and to the ongoing financial and economic crisis, and considers how innovation in financing for the water sector may need to adapt.
Table of contents:
Foreword (and Acknowledgements) Abbreviations and acronyms Executive summary Introduction -Overview -Target audience -Structure of this report Chapter 1. Setting the stage -1.1. Financial flows for water and sanitation services -1.2. Why focus on market-based repayable finance in this report? -1.3. Why is innovation needed to increase market-based repayable finance? -1.4. Previous recommendations and their follow-up Chapter 2. Mobilising market-based repayable finance -2.1. Potential recipients of market-based repayable finance -2.2. Potential sources -2.3. Critical mismatches driving innovation: a summary Chapter 3. Pushing the boundaries of innovative finance -3.1. Blending grants and repayable financing -3.2. Extending the range of potential borrowers via micro-finance -3.3. Alleviating affordability constraints with output-based aid -3.4. Mitigating risks with guarantees and insurance -3.5. Creating grouped financing vehicles to increase access to finance -3.6. Increasing lending to sub-sovereigns via innovation -3.7. Strengthening the balance sheet via equity injections -3.8. Increasing transparency in the sector via credit ratings -3.9. Developing "bankable projects" through project preparation facilities -3.10 Summary evaluation Chapter 4. Assessing the impact of the global financial crisis -4.1. Potential impact on market-based repayable finance -4.2. Potential impact on the 3Ts -4.3. In sum: glimmers of hope after the drought? Bibliography