The Slovak Republic imports virtually all of its natural gas and crude oil from a single supplier, the Russian Federation. Energy security is therefore an overarching concern and priority in the Slovak Republicfs energy policy agenda. The government is taking steps to diversify supplies and build on lessons learned from the gas supply disruption in 2009.
Enhancing regional co-operation, particularly in the development of gas and electricity interconnections, is an essential step towards meeting the dual policy objectives of enhancing energy security and market competition. The Slovak Republic has moved forward with coupling its electricity market with the Czech Republic's, and supports the construction of a North-South pipeline connection that would link planned LNG terminals in Croatia and Poland, including an interconnector to Hungary.
Despite a sharp decline in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions since 1990, the Slovak Republic remains a GHG-intensive economy by OECD standards, with energy-related CO2 emissions accounting for over 70% of total GHG emissions. The country must continue to implement policies that ease the transition to a low-carbon economy. Nuclear power and renewable energy can play crucial roles in the Slovak Republicfs efforts to decarbonise its electricity production. Significant efforts can also be made to improve energy efficiency, especially in the transport and building sectors. District heating is a notable area with huge potential for reducing national GHG emissions.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing the Slovak Republic, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.