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Untapped Skills
Realising the Potential of Immigrant Students
OECD Publishing , Publication date:  10 Aug 2012
Pages: 204 , Language: English
Version: Print (Paperback) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264172296 , OECD Code: 982012041P1
Price:   €60 | $84 | £54 | ¥7800 | MXN1080 , Standard shipping included!
Availability: Available
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Other Versions:  E-book - PDF Format

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This report reviews recent trends in international migration, describing the size of current foreign-born populations across countries and analysing factors associated to the size and nature of these populations, reviews a set of important differences and similarities across educational systems and gives a brief description of population sizes across countries.

It also provides an overview of the evidence emerging from PISA 2009 on the performance and socio-economic background of children of immigrants. Who are the children of immigrants? What do they know and what can they do? How do they differ from other students? Do they approach school and learning in a different way? It examines more closely the issue of assessment language proficiency among immigrant students and its possible impact on cognitive outcomes in PISA. It explores the effect of age at arrival on the performance of immigrant students in the PISA tests of literacy.
Selective migration policies of certain countries and the attractiveness of these countries generally to highly educated migrants is also explored.

It also discusses the future educational and professional career of the children of immigrant related to their performance in PISA. Does the skill and knowledge disadvantage at age 15 translate into a disadvantage in later educational outcomes? For example, are those children of immigrants less likely to access a post-secondary educational institution?

Table of contents:

Executive Summary
Reader's Guide
Chapter 1. Overview of Immigration Regimes and Education Systems
-Overview of international migration
--International migration trends in recent decades
--The regulation of international migration
--The composition of international migration
-- The immigrant student population
-Introduction to PISA
--The PISA surveys
--The PISA student population
-The prevalence of immigrant students across countries
-The proportion of immigrant students continues to grow
-Overview of education systems
--The level and distribution of resources
--Managing student diversity: the selection and grouping of students across and within schools
--Governance of schools
--Assessment and accountability
-Summary and conclusions
Chapter 2. The Performance Profiles of Immigrant Students
-Knowledge and skills disadvantage among immigrant students
--Average performance
--Performance differences across the distribution of performance
--Knowledge and skills disadvantage among first- and second-generation students
--Socio-economic disadvantage among immigrant students
--Student socio-economic background in PISA
--Do differences in socio-economic background account for the disadvantage in knowledge and skills?
-- Immigrant students
--Second-generation students
--First-generation students
--Heterogeneity in knowledge, skills and socio-economic background
--Performance heterogeneity of immigrant students
--Socio-economic heterogeneity of immigrant students
--Trends between PISA 2000 and PISA 2009
--First and second-generation students
-Summary and conclusions
Chapter 3. Master of the Assessment Language and Reading Outcomes
-What factors affect language proficiency
-Language exposure at home
-Language exposure at school
--A higher concentration in schools of students who do not speak the test language at home is related to worse outcomes for both non-immigrant and immigrant students
--First- and second-generation immigrants are more likely to attend remedial language classes
-Summary and conclusions
Chapter 4. Immigrant Students'Age at Arrival and Assessment Results
-Previous evidence on age-at-arrival penalties
--Country-specific studies
--International evidence
-Country differences in late-arrival penalties
-Language and the late-arrival penalty
-Age of arrival penalties and language spoken at home: A combined analysis
-Summary and conclusions
Chapter 5. Parental Education, Immigrant Concentration and PISA Outcomes
-Educational attainment and assessment results
-The differential impacts of maternal attainment on outcomes
-The effect of concentration on immigrant student outcomes
-School disadvantage, maternal educational attainment and reading outcomes
-Summary and conclusions
Chapter 6. Post-Seconary Attendance of Immigrants in Switzerland and Canada
-Skills and knowledge at age 15 and tertiary attendance
--Outcomes for the entire student population and for low performers
--Outcomes for immigrant students and for lowest performers
--Differences in immigration and educational systems of Canada and Switzerland
--Differences in immigration systems
--Differences in education systems
--Differences in average performance in PISA 2000
-Educational attendance by immigrant background: the likelihood of attending tertiary level
-Differences in outcomes by source country background
--Country of origin profiles in Canada and Switzerland
-Access to higher education among low performers
--Observed differences: A simple model without adjustments for individual characteristics (model 1)
--Adjusted differences: Taking into account individual characteristics (models 2 and 3)
--Differences by source region among low performers
-What differentiates low-performers who attend post-secondary education from those who do not?
-Summary and conclusions
Annex A. Technical Background
Annex B. Data Tables on Immigrant Students

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