Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: 1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality in 2) education; 3) employment and 4) entrepreneurship.
Key policy messages are as follows: -Greater gender equality in educational attainment has a strong positive effect on economic growth; -Stereotyping needs to be addressed in educational choices at school from a young age. For example, adapt teaching strategies and material to increase engagement of boys in reading and of girls in maths and science; encourage more girls to follow science, engineering and maths courses in higher education and seek employment in these fields; -Good and affordable childcare is a key factor for better gender equality in employment. But change also has to happen at home as the bulk of housework and caring is left to women in many countries. Policy can support such change, for example, through parental leave policies that explicitly include fathers. -Support policies for women-owned enterprises need to target all existing firms, not just start-ups and small enterprises. Equal access to finance for male and female entrepreneurs needs to be assured.
Table of contents:
Executive summary Part I. Gender equality: The economic case, social norms and public policies Chapter 1. The economic case for gender equality Chapter 2. Why social institutions matter for gender equality Chapter 3. Embedding gender equality in public policy Part II. Gender equality in education Chapter 4. Keeping girls and boys in school Chapter 5. Aid in support of gender equality in education Chapter 6. Who’s good at what in school? Chapter 7. Secondary school graduates: what next? Chapter 8. Science versus the humanities Chapter 9. Getting the job you studied for Chapter 10. Financial education for financial empowerment Part III. Gender equality in employment Chapter 11. Who is in paid work? Chapter 12. Does motherhood mean part-time work? Chapter 13. A woman's worth Chapter 14. The business case for women and addressing the leaky pipeline Chapter 15. Women on boards Chapter 16. Gender divides in the public domain Chapter 17. Who cares? Chapter 18. Supporting parents in juggling work and family Chapter 19. Male and female employment in the aftermath of the crisis Chapter 20. The hidden workers: Women in informal employment Chapter 21. Women in retirement Part IV. Gender equality in entrepreneurship Chapter 22. Trends in women entrepreneurship Chapter 23. Motivations and skills of women entrepreneurs Chapter 24. Is there a gender gap in enterprise performance? Chapter 25. Does entrepreneurship pay for women? Chapter 26. Women’s access to credit Chapter 27. Financing female-owned enterprises in Partner countries Chapter 28. Do women innovate differently? Chapter 29. Formalising female-owned businesses