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Grade Expectations
How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students' Ambitions
OECD Publishing , Publication date:  17 Jan 2013
Pages: 140 , Language: English
Version: Print (Paperback) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264187504 , OECD Code: 982012091P1
Price:   €39 | $54 | £35 | ¥5000 | MXN700 , Standard shipping included!
Availability: Available
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Other Versions:  E-book - PDF Format

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While enrolment in tertiary education has increased dramatically over the past decades, many university-aged students do not enrol, nor do they expect to earn a university degree. While it is important to promote high expectations for further education, it is equally important to ensure that students’ expectations are well-aligned with their actual abilities. Grade Expectations: How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students' Ambitions reveals some of the factors that influence students’ thinking about further education. The report also suggests what teachers and education policy makers can do to ensure that more students have the skills, as well as the motivation, to succeed in higher education.
In 2009, students in 21 PISA-participating countries and economies were asked about their expected educational attainment. An analysis of PISA data finds that students who expect to earn a university degree show significantly better performance in math and reading when compared to students who do not expect to earn such a university degree. However, performance is only one of the factors that determine expectations. On average across most countries and economies, girls and socio-economically advantaged students tend to hold more ambitious expectations than boys and disadvantaged students who perform just as well; and students with higher school marks are more likely to expect to earn a university degree – regardless of what those marks really measure.

Table of contents:

Executive Summary
-Introduction to PISA and the Educational Career questionnaire
Chapter 1. What Do Students Expect to Do after Upper Secondary School?
-Educational expectations across countries and economies
--Expectations of completing a university degree
--Expectations of ending formal education at the upper secondary level
-Inequalities in expectations
--Inequalities in expectations by socio-economic status
--Inequalities in expectations by gender..
-How graduation and enrolment rates are reflected in the expectations of 15-year-olds
-Perspectives on social mobility
Chapter 2. What Behaviours Do Teachers Reward?
-How countries grade their students: Marks in PISA
-Behaviours rewarded by marks
-Towards a model of marks
-Grade inflation
Chapter 3. What Is the Relationship between Marks and Educational Expectations?
-Marks predict educational expectations
-Marks can reduce inequalities in educational expectations
--Gender differences in marks and expectations
--Socio-economic differences in marks and expectations
Chapter 4. Policy Recommendations
Annex A. The Educational Career Questionnaire
Annex B. Data Tables on Educational Expectations and Markes

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