This conference proceedings provides the papers presented at the OECD/European Commission joint seminar on Naturalisation and the Socio-Economic Integration of Immigrants and their Children held in October 2010 in Brussels. It takes stock of the current knowledge regarding the links between host-country nationality and socio-economic integration of immigrants and their children, building on novel evidence on this issue. It also discusses the role of naturalisation as a tool in the overall framework for immigration and integration policy, with the aim of identifying good practices.
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Main findings of the Joint EC/OECD Seminar on Naturaliastion and the Socio-Economic Integration of Immigrants and their Children by Thomas Liebig PART I. NATURALISATION AND THE LABOUR MARKET OUTCOMES OF IMMIGRANTS: AN OVERVIEW Chapter 1. Citizenship and the Socio-economic Integration of Immigrants and their Children: An Overview across EU and OECD Countries by Thomas Liebig and Friederike Von Haaren -Introduction -1.1. Citizenship take-up among immigrants -1.2. The labour market outcomes of naturalised and non-naturalised immigrants -1.3. Labour market outcomes of children of immigrants and the association with host-country nationality -1.4. The impact of naturalisation on immigrants’ labour market outcomes -1.5. Conclusions -Annex 1.A1. Methodology -Annex 1.A2. Supplementary tables Chapter 2. The Current Status of Nationality Law by Nicole Guimezanes -Introduction -2.1. Dual nationality -2.2. Acquisition of nationality at birth -2.3. Acquisition of nationality by naturalisation -2.4. Other ways of acquiring nationality -2.5. Loss of nationality -2.6. Conclusions -Annex 2.A1. The main laws on nationality -Annex 2.A2. Supplementary tables PART II. THE IMPACT OF NATURALISATION ON IMMIGRANTS' LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION: EXPERIENCE FROM EU AND OECD COUNTRIES Chapter 3. The Impact of Naturalisation on Labour Market Outcomes in Sweden by Mattias Engdahl -Introduction -3.1. General framework on benefits and costs of acquiring Swedish citizenship -3.2. Data, sample restrictions and empirical specification -3.3. Labour market outcomes -3.4. Conclusions -Annex 3.A1. Variable definitions -Annex 3.A2. Tables Chapter 4. How Acquring French Citizenship Affects Immigrant Employment by Denis Fougère and Mirna Safi -Introduction -4.1. The acquisition of citizenship and labour market integration in France -4.2. Measuring the association between naturalisation and immigrants’ access to employment -4.3. Conclusions Chapter 5. The Impact of Naturalisation on Immigrant Labour Market Integration in Germany and Switzerland by Max Friedrich Steinhardt -Introduction -5.1. Germany -5.2. Switzerland Chapter 6. Citizenship Acquisition in Canada and the United States: Determinants and Economic Benefit by Garnett Picot and Feng Hou -Introduction -6.1. Becoming a citizen of Canada or the United States -6.2. Does citizenship acquisition improve economic outcomes? -6.3. The determinants of naturalisation -6.4. The rise of a naturalisation rate gap between Canada and the United States -6.5. Conclusions Chapter 7. The Labour Market Outcomes of Naturalised Citizens in Norway by Bernt Bratsberg and Oddbjørn Raaum -Introduction -7.1. Potential gains and losses from host-country citizenship -7.2. Data -7.3. Empirical analysis -7.4. Discussion -7.5. Conclusions PART III. NATURALISATION AND SOCIAL COHESION Chapter 8. Social Cohesion and Host Country Nationality among Immigrants in Western Europe by Christel Kesler and Neli Demireva -Introduction -8.1. Social capital, social cohesion, diversity and citizenship acquisition -8.2. Data source and variables -8.3. Empirical results -8.4. Conclusions -Annex 8.A1. Number of immigrants in the sample -Annex 8.A2. Additional coefficients Chapter 9. Naturalisation and Social Inclusion by Pieter Bevelander -Introduction -9.1. Social inclusion -9.2. Consequences of naturalisation -9.3. Migrant voting: earlier studies -9.4. Citizenship and voting -9.5. Conclusions -Annex 9.A1. Regression results on voting for Swedish residents Chapter 10. Integration and Access to Nationality in EU Member Countries by Yves Pascouau and Philippe De Bruycker -Introduction -10.1. Quantitative approach -10.2. Knowledge of the language -10.3. Knowledge of the host society -10.4. National diversity and European co-ordination Chapter 11. Naturalisation and the Promotion of the Social Integration of Immigrants in Quebec by Yvan Turcotte -Introduction -11.1. Immigration policies aimed at permanent settlement -11.2. The right of permanent residence and citizenship -11.3. Access to citizenship: an indicator of integration? -11.4. Social participation -11.5. Conclusion: a paradox PART IV. THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATURALISATION POLICY AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION POLICY MIX Chapter 12. Policy Interactions in Belgium by Mélanie Knott and Altay Manço -Introduction -12.1. Obtaining Belgian nationality through naturalisation: changing conditions -12.2. Integration and the various indicators for measuring it -12.3. Conclusion: is naturalisation a means of integration? Chapter 13. The Legal Framework on Economic Migration and Naturalisation in the United Kingdom by Chris Hedges -Introduction -13.1. Legislative summary -13.2. Legal provisions in relation to grants of British citizenship -13.3. Definitions -13.4. Statistical summary -3.5. Basis of grant -3.6. Renunciation of British citizenship -3.7. Reasons for refusal -Annex 13.A1. Brief summary of the relevant provisions Chapter 14. Citizenship in Australia by David Smith, Sanuki Jayarajah, Taya Fabjianic and Janice Wykes -Introduction -14.1. History of Australian migration, integration and citizenship policies (1900 to present) -14.2. Citizenship conferrals -14.3. Characteristics of citizens -14.4. Variation by birthplace -14.5. Variation by years since arrival -14.6. Variation by birthplace and years since arrival -14.7. The relationship between citizenship and labour market outcomes -14.8. Do their jobs differ? -14.9. Impact of the length of stay on the labour market performance -14.10. Conclusions Chapter 15. From Assisting to Requiring Integration: Selective Citizenship Policies in the Netherlands by Kees Groenendijk -Introduction -15.1. Policy on immigrant integration: twice a new paradigm -15.2. Acquisition of nationality by naturalisation: restriction, liberalisation, restriction -15.3. Effects of new rules and tests: numbers and selection -15.4. The recent close relation between integration and naturalisation policy -15.5. Effects of naturalisation and integration policy on immigrant integration