This report presents three case studies to illustrate the relationship between environmental policy and technological innovation. The case studies cover abatement technologies for wastewater effluent from pulp production, abatement of motor vehicle emissions, and development of renewable energy technologies. On the basis of patent data, the nature, extent, and causes of innovation in each of these areas have been explored. While a particular focus has been placed on the role of environmental policy in bringing about the innovation documented, it is recognised that other factors play a key role in inducing innovation that has positive environmental implications.
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List of Acronyms Executive Summary Chapter 1. Environmental Policy, Technological Innovation and Patent Activity -1. Introduction -2. The Economics of Innovation and Eco-Innovation -3. Measures of Innovation and Eco-Innovation -4. The Policy Determinants of Eco-Innovation -5. The Case Studies -Annex 1.A1. Sources of Patent Data -Annex 1.A2. Patent Classification Systems -Annex 1.A3. Number of EPO Applications in Different Environmental Areas Chapter 2. Environmental Regulation and International Innovation in Automotive Emissions Control Technologies -1. Introduction -2. Environmental Regulation in the Automobile Sector -3. Innovation in Automotive Emissions Control Technologies -4. Empirical Analyses and Results -5. Conclusions -Annex 2.A1. Overview of Technologies and Corresponding Patent Classes Chapter 3. Policy vs. Consumer Pressure: Innovation and Diffusion of Alternative BleachingTechnologies in the Pulp Industry -1. Introduction -2. The Pulp and Paper Industry -3. Pollution and the Pulp and Paper Industry -4. Regulatory Responses -5. Data -6. Analysis -7. Conclusions -Annex 3.A1. Relevant Patent Classes for Pulp Bleaching Technologies Chapter 4. Renewable Energy Policies and Technological Innovation: Energy Source and Instrument Choice -1. Introduction -2. The Renewable Energy Sector: Trends, Technologies and Policies -3. Patent Applications for Renewable Energy -4. Empirical Analysis -5. Conclusions -Annex 4.A1. First Page of Sample Patent Application Chapter 5. Policy Conclusions and Further Work -1. Policy Conclusions -2. Further Work -Annex 5.A1. Glossary of Relevant Patent and Related Terms