OECD's review of Canada's territorial policy. It find that Canada is composed of three macroregions: a southern ribbon with all the important metropolitan areas, a zone of rural and non-metropolitan adjacent regions and a sub-continent of remote northern territories. Disparities between these macroregions persist and may even be growing. Opportunities for growth are lost because of these imbalances and also because specific regional advantages are not fully tapped. In many regions, weak local governance is hindering the emergence of local grass-roots projects, diffusion of R&D results to SMEs is slow and dialogue between higher education institutions and firms is poor. This report underlines the need for federal agencies and sectoral departments to continuously assess the consistency of their policies with regard to the three macroregions in order to enhance territorial cohesion and better tailor programmes to local conditions. More federal involvement in metropolitan issues notably through negotiated planning could help to institutionalise and strengthen urban policies. This report also emphasises the significant overhauling of rural policies that took place recently. It underlines that in certain areas such as amenities a strategic approach is still to be defined. Resolving governance issues is a priority in the north.
Table of contents:
Assessment and Recommendations Chapter 1. Territorial Trends and Disparities -Main Economic Trends at the Territorial Level -Comparative Advantages and Main Challenges Faced by the Regions Chapter 2. Territorial Development Strategies and Policies -Trends in Regional Policies -The Implementation of Regional Policies: Agency Profiles and Achievements -National Programmes with Territorial Impacts: The Case of Infrastructure and Information Technologies -To Sum Up Chapter 3. The Challenges of Urban Policy Making -Main Policies for Urban Areas -Rethinking Federal Urban Policy Chapter 4. Policies for Rural Regions and Northern Territories -Policies for Predominantly Rural Regions -Policies for the Northern Territories -Aboriginal People: Challenges and Policies Chapter 5. Fiscal Federalism and Metropolitan Reforms -Institutional Background -Fiscal Federalism (Revenue and Expenditure Decentralisation) -Fiscal Equalisation -Social Assistance and Employment Insurance -Reforms in Active Labour Market Policies -Municipal Governance -Amalgamation in Metropolitan Areas -Conclusions Bibliography