Transport activity continues to cause large adverse impacts on the environment, human health and the economy. But is a negative impact of transport on the environment a necessary consequence of economic growth? This book illustrates that decoupling the environmental impacts of transport from economic growth is achievable, through the efficient use of charges, fees, taxes and other economic instruments. These economic approaches can complement regulatory measures to encourage a shift towards more environmentally-friendly modes of transport, such as from road to certain forms of rail transport. Other factors which could help to decouple transport impacts from economic growth are improvements in freight transport logistics, and dematerialisation.
Table of contents:
Executive Summary Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Transport and the Economy Chapter 3. Transport and the Environment Chapter 4. Decoupling Indicators Chapter 5. Policy Instruments for Decoupling Chapter 6. National Case Studies -1. Background -2. Austria -3. Germany -4. Italy -5. Japan -6. Spain -7. Sweden -8. Heavy Goods Vehicle Fee - Switzerland -9. Congestion Charging - London Chapter 7. Conclusion: Towards a Decoupling Strategy Glossary References