Much of the current policy debate has considered infrastructure charges as a form of “fiscal” instrument for managing transport demand. The Round Table analysed the opportunities for setting infrastructure service prices so that they also provide guidance for the supply of services. It discussed the possibilities of increasing the finances available for transport infrastructure investment and maintenance by introducing a quasi-market for transport infrastructure services. The general public impression is that charges are a just another tax increase in disguise. Infrastructure charging that uses a mix of “fees for service” and capacity expansion criteria is expected to correct this impression, and thus to improve the political acceptability of infrastructure pricing.
Table of contents:
INTRODUCTORY REPORTS The Role of Road Funds in Improving Maintenance by K. Gwilliam, USA 1. Introduction 2. The perceived problem for developing countries 3. The history of road funds 4. Second-generation road funds (SGRFs) 5. The evidence on SGRFs 6. Conclusions Budgeting for Road Maintenance by B. Potter, IMF 1. Introduction and background 2. Earmarking and the traditional approach 3. The emergence of road funds 4. Second generation road funds 5. New Zealand 6. Next steps in reform 7. Conclusion Self-financing of Infrastructure Services by E.T. Verhoef, The Netherlands 1. Introduction 2. The financing of optimally designed roads: A basic exposition 3. Optimal charging and capacity choice, and self-financing 4. Second best issues 5. Empirical estimates of scale economies in road provision 6. Conclusion Road User Charges and Infrastructure by G. Santos, United Kingdom 1. Introduction 2. Provision of roads 3. Which social costs should be covered by user charges? 4. Congestion charges and highway costs 5. Conclusions SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS -Round Table debate on reports LIST OF PARTICIPANTS