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Harnessing Variable Renewables
A Guide to the Balancing Challenge
IEA. Published by : OECD Publishing , Date de parution:  07 juin 2011
Pages: 200 , Langue: Anglais
Version: Livre (Broché) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264111387 , Code OCDE: 612011171P1
Prix:   €100 | $140 | £90 | ¥13000 | MXN1800 , Frais de livraison inclus
Disponibilité: Disponible
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Autres versions:  Livre électronique - Format PDF

Titres connexes

Détails
Imprint:  Agence Internationale de l'Energie Graphiques: 109 

Description

Power systems must be actively managed to maintain a steady balance between supply and demand. This is already a complex task as demand varies continually. But what happens when supply becomes more variable and less certain, as with some renewable sources of electricity like wind and solar PV that fluctuate with the weather? To what extent can the resources that help power systems cope with the challenge of variability in demand also be applied to variability of supply? How large are these resources? And what share of electricity supply from variable renewables can they make possible?

There is no one-size-fits-all answer. The ways electricity is produced, transported and consumed around the world exhibit great diversity. Grids can cross borders, requiring co-ordinated international policy, or can be distinct within a single country or region. And whether found in dispatchable power plants, storage facilities, interconnections for trade or on the demand side, the flexible resource that ensures the provision of reliable power in the face of uncertainty likewise differs enormously.

Written for decision makers, Harnessing Variable Renewables: a Guide to the Balancing Challenge sheds light on managing power systems with large shares of variable renewables. It presents a new, step-by-step approach developed by the IEA to assess the flexibility of power systems, which identifies the already present resources that could help meet the twin challenges of variability and uncertainty.


Tables des matières:

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Executive summary
PART 1
1. Introduction
-
What is in this book?
2. Why is variability a challenge? .
-Fluctuating supply
-Uncertainty
-When is the balancing challenge greatest?
3. Greater flexibility is the right response
-
What is flexibility?
4. Key distinguishing features of power systems
5. The Flexibility Assessment Method
6. Identifying the flexible resource
-
Dispatchable power plants
-Energy storage
-Interconnection for trade with adjacent areas
-Demand side management and response
-Comparing areas using the Flexibility Index
7. How much of the flexible resource is available?
-
Dispatchable power plant availability
-Energy storage availability
-Interconnection availability
-Demand side availability
-Grid strength and intelligence
-Potential market and operational constraints
8. What are the needs for flexibility?
-
Existing flexibility requirement
-Additional requirements of VRE
9. Identifying the Present VRE Penetration Potential
10. What is the cost of balancing variable renewable energy?
-
Key drivers of balancing costs
-Methodology for estimating balancing costs
-Estimates of balancing costs
11. Conclusions, recommendations to policy makers and next steps
-
Conclusions
-Recommendations to policy makers
-Next steps and further research
PART 2
12. Case study methodology
-
The balancing timeframe
-Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Treatment of flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Scoring and weighting of area attributes
-Case study results
13. Great Britain and Ireland area (British Isles)
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
14. Spain and Portugal area (Iberian Peninsula)
-Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
15. Mexico
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
16. Nordic
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
17. Denmark
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
18. Japan
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
19. US West 2017
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
20. Canada Maritime: the NBSO area
-
Flexibility requirement of VRE
-Flexible resources
-Flexibility Index and Present VRE Penetration Potential
-Area constraints
Annexes
A. Other integration costs
B. Additional information on VRE technologies
C. Assumptions relating to dispatchable power plants in case-study areas
D. Defining the power area for analysis with the FAST tool
E. The role of CCS in flexible power generation
F. The role of CHP in flexible power generation
G. Treatment of fundamental area attributes in the case-studies
H. Acronyms
I. References

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