Inducing environmental innovation is a significant challenge to policy-makers. Efforts to design public policies that address these issues are motivated by the fact that innovations can allow for improved environmental quality at lower cost. However, the relationship between environmental policy and technological innovation remains an area in which empirical evidence is scant. Increased attention should be paid to the design characteristics of public policies that are likely to affect the ‘type’ of innovation induced. The work presented in this book is brought together in five substantive chapters: environmental policy design characteristics and their role in inducing innovation, the role of public policies (including multilateral agreements) in encouraging transfer of environmental technologies, followed by three ‘sectoral’ studies of innovation in alternative fuel vehicles, solid waste management and recycling, and green (sustainable) chemistry. While particular focus has been placed on the role of environmental policy in bringing about the innovation documented, it is recognised that other factors play a key role in inducing innovation which has positive environmental implications.
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List of Acronyms Executive Summary Chapter 1.Environmental Policy Design Characteristics and Innovation by Nick Johnstone, Ivan Hašèiè and Margarita Kalamova -Introduction -Environmental policy design characteristics as determinants of innovation -Indicator of innovation in general environmental technologies -Empirical evidence on the effect of environmental policy characteristics on innovation -Concluding remarks Chapter 2.Environmental Policy, Multilateral Environmental Agreements and International Markets for Innovation by Ivan Hašèiè, Nick Johnstone and Oussema Trigui -Introduction -International transfer of environmental technologies -Environmental regulation and fragmentation of innovation markets -Multilateral environmental agreements and technology transfer -Conclusions -Annex 2.A1. Emissions of SOX and NOX in OECD Countries -Annex 2.A2. Signatories of the LRTAP Convention and Selected Protocols -Annex 2.A3. Excerpts from the Protocols Related to Technology Transfer Chapter 3.Innovation in Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technologies: The Role of Prices, Standards and R&D by Ivan Hašèiè and Nick Johnstone -Introduction -Technology overview -Invention in AFV technologies: Evidence from patent data. -Government policies aimed at AFV technologies: An overview -Adoption of AFV technologies -Innovation effects of government policies: Empirical evidence based on patent data. -Conclusions and policy implications Chapter 4.Diverting Waste: The Role of Innovation by Francesco Nicolli and Massimiliano Mazzanti -Introduction -General waste recycling patent trends -Packaging waste innovation and policies -End-of-life vehicle innovation and policies -Composting innovation and policies -Conclusions Chapter 5.Innovation in Selected Areas of Green Chemistry by Fleur Watson and Nick Johnstone -Introduction -Green chemistry initiatives -Important areas of green chemistry -Measuring innovation in green chemistry -Major trends in selected green chemistry inventive activity -The effect of public policy on green chemistry innovation -Conclusions Chapter 6.Policy Conclusions Annex A.Methodological Issues in the Development of Indicators of Innovation and Transfer in Environmental Technologies Annex B.Patent Search Strategies Annex C.Glossary of Relevant Patent and Related Terms Annex D.Patent Data at OECD.Stat