Korea is confronting a serious challenges. It has to improve income equality in the context of a severe demographic transition. Such a transition, from one of the youngest populations in the OECD at present to the second oldest by 2050, may boost the need for public spending and slow economic growth. In this context and as the pace of population ageing is accelerating, it is important to act quickly in a wide range of areas: -Policies to sustain Korea’s growth potential in the face of falling labour inputs; -Measures that improve both growth and equality; -Carefully-targeted increases in social spending to reduce inequality and poverty; -Financing higher social spending, with priority given to a reform of tax and social security that minimises the negative impact on output growth.
Against the background of these broad challenges, which are discussed in a specific, setting-the-ground, Chapter, the report suggests policy options, based on the practices and reforms of other countries, in the following four areas: I) Income Distribution and Poverty; II) Tackling the Duality of the Labour Market; III) Early Childcare; and IV) Moving beyond Hospitals to better Care in the Community.
Tables des matières:
Acronyms and abbreviations Executive summary A policy toolkit for growth and social cohesion in Korea Chapter 1. Overview: Why is social cohesion an urgent issue in Korea? -1.1. Korea’s legacy of “egalitarian growth” -1.2. Factors increasing inequality in Korea in recent years -1.3. Challenges to achieving social cohesion -1.4. Coping with these challenges -References Chapter 2. Income distribution and poverty among the working-age population and implications for social welfare policies -2.1. Introduction -2.2. Income distribution and poverty in Korea: An overview -2.3. Key features of the Korean social safety net for working-age people -2.4. Income adequacy of the Korean social safety net for working-age people -2.5 The impact of taxes and benefits on work incentives -References Chapter 3. Policies to tackle labour market duality in Korea -3.1. Introduction -3.2. Labour market duality in Korea: Overview of a complex phenomenon -3.3. The policy rationale for reducing labour market duality -3.4. Policies to reduce overall labour market duality -3.5. Policies targeted on groups particularly disadvantaged by labour market dualism -References -Annex 3.A1. Mobility of non-regular workers based on self-assessment of employment type Chapter 4. Combined early childhood education and care measures to ensure social cohesion -4.1. Introduction -4.2. Reviewing equity measures outcomes and identifying policy issues -4.3. Policy issues related to female labour market outcomes and demographic challenges -4.4. Reviewing public responsibility and investment, and identifying policy issues -4.5. Conclusions -References -Annex 4.A1. Notes, methodology and data sources to the spider webs Chapter 5. Moving from hospitals to primary care for chronic diseases -5.1. Introduction -5.2. Defining primary care -5.3. The health system faces looming challenges -5.4. Korea’s health system is geared towards hospitals and not primary care -5.5. Getting the building blocks right: Payments, flexible institutions and workforce -5.6. A Korean model of primary care: Multi-specialty group practices (polyclinics) -References