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Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education
Lessons from PISA for Korea
OECD Publishing , Date de parution:  16 avr 2014
Pages: 200 , Langue: Anglais
Version: Livre (Broché) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264190665 , Code OCDE: 982013021P1
Prix:   €45 | $63 | £40 | ¥5800 | MXN810 , Frais de livraison inclus
Disponibilité: Disponible
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Autres langues:  Coréen (Bientôt disponible)
Autres versions:  Livre électronique - Format PDF

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The story of Korean education over the past 50 years is one of remarkable growth and achievement. Korea is one of the top performing countries in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey and among those with the highest proportion of young people who have completed upper secondary and tertiary education. Korea is continuously exploring ways to improve its education system and has dramatically increased government investment in education over the last decade. Nevertheless, further reforms are needed to spur and sustain improvements. Rapid globalisation and modernisation are also posing new and demanding challenges to equip young people of today and tomorrow with skills relevant to the 21st century.

The report Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for Korea aims at helping Korea to identify and address education policy challenges in an international perspective. To this end, it examines the Korean education system through the prism of PISA, considers recent policy developments and suggests specific policy options to foster improvements. The report also provides an in-depth analysis of the experience of other high-performing countries.

Tables des matières:

Executive Summary 15
Chapter 1. Strong performancer, successful reformers: Korea 17
-A changing yardstick for educational success 18
-Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education series 18
-About this report 19
-Methodology 19
-Framework for analysis 19
-What is PISA and what can we learn from it? 20
-How can PISA be used to help improve education systems? 21
-Research methods employed for the country chapters 23
-Research methods employed to draw lessons for Korea 23
-Background on education in Korea and comparisons with selected high-performing countries 24
--Country comparisons 24
--Shaping of Education in Korea 24
Chapter 2. Viewing education in Korea through the prism of PISA 31
-Consistently high mean performance among 15-year-old 32
-Relative shares of top-performing students: Above the OECD average and, in reading, an increase over time 35
-Low proportion of poor-performing students: Consistently among the lowest in the OECD (with a decline in science) 39
-Korea: A favourable context for student achievement 41
-Equity in the distribution of learning opportunities 45
-Changes in performance differences 46
-Access to resources and socio-economic background 47
-Below-average impact of socio-economic background on learning outcomes 48
-Other factors related to poor student performance that emerge from PISA 49
-What are the broader effects of a demanding education system? 50
-Other learning outcomes: Student engagement, strategies and practices 50
-Using effective learning strategies 54
-Studying in a digital age: Digital reading performance and use of digital resources 55
--Relatively high proficiency in digital reading 55
--Differences in print versus digital reading 56
--Gender and digital reading 56
--Online reading practices 57
--Using computers and the Internet 59
-The learning environment in Korea 60
-The Korean education system and education policies that make a difference 65
--Participation in early childhood education with a reliance on private institutions and funding65
-Competition as a powerful source of innovation 67
-Setting standards and accountability arrangements 74
-Dealing with diversity in the student population: Low levels of vertical differentiation and medium levels of horizontal differentiation 76
-The balance between public and private education 77
Chapter 3. Supplementary education in East Asia 87
-Towards a better understanding of supplementary education 88
--Defining supplementary education 88
--Mapping supplementary education 88
--Who receives supplementary education?89
-The main drivers of supplementary education 90
--A head start to enter prestigious universities 91
--More pressure and chances to succeed 91
--Mitigating the shortcomings of schools 92
-The impact of supplementary education 92
--The impact on the learning process 92
-The impact on academic performance and spill over effects 94
--The impact on academic performance is not clear-cut 94
--Exacerbates socio-economic inequalities 94
--A high cost for student well-being 94
--A sizeable market 95
-Policy Responses to Supplementary Education 95
--Policies to downsize and limit supplementary education 95
--Broaden access to supplementary education 96
--Foster research and public engagement for more effective policy responses 97
Chapter 4. Shanghai and Hong Kong-China: Learning to Learn 103
-Introduction 104
-The cultural context 104
--Cultural paradoxes 104
--The historical context 105
--Ideology-driven systems: 1905 to 1976 105
--The reconstruction of education: the late 1970s onwards 105
--The system today 106
-Shanghai: A leader in reforms 107
--How education is practised 108
--Reform strategies: from teaching to learning 110
--Achievements and challenges 115
-Hong Kong-China’s education system: One Country, two systems 117
--Evolution of Hong Kong-China’s education system 118
--The drive for reform 119
--Achievements and challenges 123
-Lessons from Shanghai and Hong Kong-China 123
--Building legitimacy 124
-Breaking away from tradition 124
--Root and branch reform versus superficial improvement 124
--A focus on learning 125
--A holistic approach 125
--Accountability 125
-Final observations: Education for economic success 126
Chapter 5. Singapore: Thinking Ahead 133
-Introduction 134
-Singapore’s education system: The path to becoming a learning nation 135
--The survival-driven phase (1959-1978) 135
--Efficiency-driven phase (1979-1996) 135
--Ability-based, aspiration-driven phase (1997-present) 136
-Current structure 137
-Singapore’s success in education 137
--A forward-looking, integrated planning system 137
--Close links between policy implementers, researchers and educators 139
--Policies and the means to implement them 139
--The advantages of a small scale 139
--Commitment to equity and merit 139
--A strong focus on mathematics, science and technical skills 140
--Human resource management that matches the demands of the system 141
--A system that is continuously being improved 143
-Lessons from Singapore 143
-Preparing Singaporeans for the future 145
--Curriculum 2015 145
--Teacher preparation for the 21st century 146
-Challenges and needs 147
Chapter 6. Ontario: Harnessing the Skills of Tomorrow 153
-Introduction 154
-Understanding the Canadian system 154
-Canadian success factors 155
-Ontario: reforming for the future 156
--Focusing on a few clear goals 156
--Building support among teachers, unions, and other stakeholders 157
--Creating the structures for solid implementation 157
--Reforming literacy and numeracy in elementary schools 157
--Reducing high school dropouts 157
--Avoiding top-down mandates and clarifying roles 158
--Cultural support for universal high achievement by a diverse population 158
--A coherent system based on shared understanding and common purpose 159
--A strong focus on educator quality 159
--Strong and persistent leadership 159
--Enhanced professional accountability 160
-Harnessing the skills of tomorrow, in both students and teachers 160
--Strategies for developing critical thinking 160
--Allowing children to customise their education 161
--A focus on big ideas 161
--Collaborative inquiry for teachers’ professional development 163
--An emerging focus on creativity in assessment 163
-Lessons from Ontario 164
Chapter 7. Finland: A Non-Competitive Education for a Competitive Economy 169
-Introduction 170
-Finnish education: A brief history 170
--Inauspicious beginnings: 1917-1970 170
--From backwater to watershed: Systemic reform in the 1970s 171
--A world-class education system: Finland today 172
-Five drivers of successful reform 173
--A focus on equity and well-being 173
--Teachers who are highly valued and highly trained 174
--Smart accountability policies 175
--A culture of trust 176
--Sustainable leadership and political coherence 176
-Education and national economic competitiveness 177
--Specific policies and desired practices for skills in a competitive knowledge economy 178
-Lessons from Finland 181
--High-quality teachers 181
--Highly efficient policies 182
--Diagnosis and early intervention 182
--Creativity 182
--Deep sectoral reforms 183
-The challenge ahead 183
Chapter 8. Policy Lessons for Korea 189
-Sustaining high performance: Strengths and policy challenges 190
-Education is a national priority 190
-Improving the transition from school to work and the labour-market outcomes of education 190
-Ensuring the relevance of vocational education and training to the labour market 191
-Developing and implementing a curriculum for the 21st Century 191
-Attracting, supporting and retaining high quality teachers 192
-Making the most of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for learning 194
-Strengthening the use of evaluation and assessment for quality improvement 194
-Equity in education for strengthening social cohesion 194
-More effective policy responses to supplementary education 195
-Improving equity and quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) 196
-Involving parents in school and in children’s learning 196
-Conclusion 196

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