This report sets out the challenge for freshwater in a changing climate and provides policy guidance on how to navigate this new “waterscape”. It highlights the range of expected changes in the water cycle and the challenge of making practical, on-site adaptation decisions for water. It offers policymakers a risk-based approach to better “know”, “target” and “manage” water risks and proposes policy guidelines to prioritise action and improve the efficiency, timeliness and equity of adaptation responses.
The report also highlights general trends and good practices drawn from the OECD Survey of Policies on Water and Climate Change Adaptation, covering all 34 member countries and the European Commission. Individual country profiles are available, which provide a snapshot of the challenges posed by climate change for freshwater and the emerging policy responses (on-line only).
Finally, the report highlights the benefits of well-designed economic instruments (e.g. insurance schemes, water trading, water pricing), ecosystem-based approaches and ‘real options’ approaches to financing. These approaches can improve the flexibility of water policy and investment, reducing the cost of adjusting to changing conditions.
Tables des matières:
Preface Abbreviations Executive summary Chapter 1. A changing and uncertain future for freshwater -Key messages -Uncertainty and knowledge gaps -A future for freshwater unlike the past -Climate change as water change -Concluding remarks -References Chapter 2. A risk-based approach to adapting water systems to climate change -Key messages -Why risk? Rationale for a risk-based approach -Thinking risk: A framework -“Know”, “target” and “manage” water risks: A role for government -Concluding remarks -References Chapter 3. Climate change adaptation for water systems in OECD countries -Key messages -Building the evidence base to “know” the risk -Policy frameworks to set the strategic direction -Policy instruments to “know”, “target” and “manage” water risks -Financing approaches -Concluding remarks -References Chapter 4. Improving flexibility: Adaptive governance, policy options and financing approaches -Key messages -Adaptive water governance -Improving incentives to manage risk and increasing flexibility in water policy -Incentives for ecosystem-based approaches and green infrastructure -Financing issues: Avoiding potential pitfalls and accounting for option values -Concluding remarks -References Chapter 5. Using hindsight to guide the future: Concluding remarks Country Profiles (online only) -Australia -Austria -Belgium -Canada -Chile -Czech Republic -Denmark -Estonia -Finland -France -Germany -Greece -Hungary -Iceland -Ireland -Israel -Italy -Japan -Korea -Luxembourg -Mexico -The Netherlands -New Zealand -Norway -Poland -Portugal -Slovak Republic -Slovenia -Spain -Sweden -Switzerland -Turkey -United Kingdom -United States -European Commission