This second volume of PISA 2012 results defines and measures equity in education and analyses how equity in education has evolved across countries between PISA 2003 and 2012. The volume examines the relationship between student performance and socio-economic status, and describes how other individual student characteristics, such as immigrant background and family structure, and school characteristics, such as school location, are associated with socio-economic status and performance. The volume also reveals differences in how equitably countries allocate resources and opportunities to learn to schools with different socio-economic profiles. Case studies,examining the policy reforms adopted by countries that have improved in PISA, are highlighted throughout the volume.
Table of contents:
Executive Summary 13 Reader’s Guide 17 What is PISA? 19 Chapter 1. Defining and Measuring Equity in Education 25 -How PISA examines equity in education opportunities 28 --The quantity and quality of educational resources 28 --Instructional content and practices 29 --Combining better performance with greater equity 29 -Examining equity throughout this report 30 Chapter 2. Equity in Outcomes 33 -Performance and socio-economic status across school systems 34 --Disparities in performance related to socio-economic status 38 --Resilient students 40 --Mean performance, after taking account of socio-economic status 40 --Between-school variation in performance 44 --Performance differences across schools and socio-economic disparities 46 -Providing access to schooling to all 15-year-olds 53 -Trends in equity between PISA 2003 and PISA 2012 56 --Trends in the profile and distribution of students in schools 59 Chapter 3. The Challenge of Diversity 63 -Family structure and student performance 64 -Parents’ job status: Targeting education policies through social policy for the unemployed 66 -School location and variation in performance across geographical areas 69 -Equity in outcomes for immigrant students 71 --The impact of other social policies on the profile of immigrant students 72 --High levels of performance across a diverse student population 72 --Higher levels of performance among an increasingly diverse student population 74 --Language minorities among immigrant students 79 --First- and second-generation students 80 --The “late-arrival penalty 80 -Concentration of disadvantage 82 -Performance, immigrant status and country of origin 84 Chapter 4. Equity in Opportunities to Learn and in Resources 87 -Disparities in exposure to formal mathematics, socio-economic status and performance 90 --Disparities within countries 91 --Differences in exposure to mathematics and average mathematics performance across school systems 91 --Between-school differences in opportunity to learn, socio-economic status and performance 91 -Equity in educational resources 93 --More is not always better 95 --Challenging school environments 95 --Learning opportunities outside school and parents’ expectations of schools 95 -Opportunities, resources, performance and socio-economic status 98 -Participation in pre-primary education 99 Chapter 5. Policy Implications of Equity in Education 103 -Patterns in the relationship between performance and socio-economic status 105 -A disproportionate number of low-performing students 111 -Different slopes and strengths of socio-economic gradients 111 --Universal policies for countries where performance differences are small and there is a weak relationship between performance and socio-economic status 112 --Policies that target socio-economic disadvantage for those countries where there are small performance differences and a strong relationship between performance and socio-economic status 114 --Policies that target both performance and socio-economic disadvantage for countries where there are large performance differences and a strong relationship between performance and socio-economic status 115 -Large socio-economic disparities 117 -Targeting low-performing and socio-economically disadvantaged schools 119 -Targeting students within schools 122 Annex A. PISA 2012 Technical background 129 Annex A1. Construction of mathematics scales and indices from the student, school and parent context questionnaires 130 Annex A2. The PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools 146 Annex A3. Technical notes on analyses in this volume 158 Annex A4. Quality assurance 162 Annex A5. Technical details of trends analyses 163 Annex B. PISA 2012 Data 173 Annex B1. Results for countries and economies 174 Annex B2. Results for regions within countries 281 Annex B3. List of tables available on line 326 Annex C. The Development and Implementation of PISA - A Collaborative Effort 327