This fourth volume of PISA 2012 results examines how student performance is associated with various characteristics of individual schools and of concerned school systems. It discusses how 15-year old students are selected and grouped into different schools, programmes, and education levels, and how human, financial, educational and time resources are allocated to different schools. The volume also examines how school systems balance autonomy with collaboration, and how the learning environment in school shapes student performance. Trends in these variables between 2003 and 2012 are examined when comparable data are available, and case studies, examining the policy reforms adopted by countries that have improved in PISA, are presented throughout the volume.
Table of contents:
Executive Summary 17 Reader's Guide 19 What is PISA 21 Chapter 1. How Resources, Policies and Practices are Related to Education Outcomes 27 -Performance differences among school systems, schools and students 29 -How learning outcomes are related to ways in which school systems select and group students 33 -How learning outcomes are related to systems' resource allocation 40 -How learning outcomes are related to the governance of education systems 50 -How learning outcomes are related to system's learning environments 60 -How the features of schools and school systems are related 63 Chapter 2. Selecting and Grouping Students 71 -How students progress through the school system 73 -How education systems organise school programmes 76 -Social and academic inclusion and vertical and horizontal stratification 83 -How systemsí grouping and selecting of students is related to studentsí instrumental motivation 86 -Trends in stratification since PISA 200388 -Grade repetition 88 -Ability grouping within schools 89 Chapter 3. Resources Invested in Education 93 -Financial resources 95 --Expenditure on education 95 --Teachersí salaries 95 -Human resources 96 --Pre-service teacher training 96 --Requirements to enter the teaching profession 98 --Teacher profile and qualifications 98 --Student-teacher ratio 100 --Teacher shortages 100 --Teachersí professional development 103 -Material resources 103 --Physical infrastructure and educational resources 105 -Time resources 109 --Intended learning time in school 110 --Studentsí learning time in regular school lessons 110 --Class size112 --Studentsí learning time in after-school lessons 112 -Extracurricular activities 116 -Studentsí attendance at pre-primary school 116 -Trends in resources invested in education since PISA 2003 117 Chapter 4. School Governance, Assessments and Accountability 127 -Governance of school systems 129 --School autonomy 129 --School choice 133 --Public and private involvement 138 --Management and leadership by principals 139 --Parental involvement 141 -Trends in governance of school systems since PISA 2003 144 -Assessment and accountability 147 --Assessments and examinations 147 --Assessment practices and purposes 148 --The use of achievement data beyond school 152 --Quality assurance 152 --Monitoring mathematics teachersí practices 155 --The consequences of teacher appraisals 155 -Trends in assessment and accountability policies since PISA 2003 159 Chapter 5. How the Quality of the Learning Environment is Shaped 165 -Student truancy 166 --Arriving late for school 167 --Skipping school 167 -School climate 169 --Teacher-student relations 169 --Disciplinary climate 171 --Student- and teacher-related factors affecting school climate 173 --Teacher morale 177 -Inter-relationships among learning-environment indicators at the school level 180 -Student and school features related to the likelihood of students arriving late for school 183 -Trends in school climate and student truancy since PISA 2003 183 Chapter 6.Policy Implications of School Management and Practices 189 ANNEX A PISA 2012 Technical background 195 -Annex A1. Construction of mathematics scales and indices from the student, school and parent context questionnaires 196 -Annex A2. The PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools 209 -Annex A3. Technical notes on analyses in this volume 221 -Annex A4. Quality assurance 225 -Annex A5. Technical details of trends analyses 226 -Annex A6. Anchoring vignettes in the PISA 2012 student questionnaire 229 Annex B.PISA 2012 Data 231 -Annex B1. Results for countries and economies 232 -Annex B2. Results for regions within countries 477 -Annex B3. List of tables available on line 535 Annex C. The Development and Implementation of PISA - A Collaborative Effort 537