This report compares the performance of 15-year-olds in the United States in PISA against the global patterns and trends. But it goes beyond the aggregate level analysis that have so far been published in the PISA 2012 reports, to give analysis of student performance on individual mathematics test items in order to reveal studentsí strengths and weaknesses. Considering this also in the context of the relationship between PISA and the Common Core Standards for Mathematics can help connect these results to what the United States aspires to teach in classrooms and help inform teaching practices that can support performance improvement.
Table of contents:
Executive Summary 7 Key findings from PISA 7 Strengths and weaknessin mathematics 8 Relationship with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics 9 Chapter 1. PISA as a Yardstick for Educational Success 11 -Situating PISA as a yardstick for educational success 12 -Structure of this report 13 -What is PISA? 14 -What does the PISA 2012 survey measure? 14 -Reporting results from PISA 2012 16 Chapter 2. Viewing the United States School Sytem through the Prism of PISA 2012 19 -Learning outcomes 20 -Equity in the distribution of learning opportunities 26 -The cost of the achievement gap 33 -The learning environment in the classroom and at school 33 -How schooling is organized 37 -Assessment and accountability arrangements 43 -Resources 45 Chapter 3. Strengths and Weaknesses of American Students in Mathematics 55 -Introduction 56 -Overall solution rates 56 -Selection of conspicuous items 56 -Detecting patterns 61 -Analyses of illustrating items63 -Analysis of student solutions 68 -Final observations 74 Chapter 4. PISA and the U.S. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics 77 -Comparing the PISA assessment framework to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics 78 -Analyzing the PISA 2012 mathematics items relative to CCSSM 81 -Results of analyzing PISA 2012 items relative to the CCSSM 86 -Final observations 90 Annex A1.The PISA Approach to Assessing Student Performance in Mathematics 95 -The PISA approach to assessing student performance in mathematics 96