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The Power of Transformation
Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems
IEA. Published by : IEA , Date de parution:  13 fév 2014
Pages: 200 , Langue: Anglais
Version: Livre (Broché) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264208025 , Code OCDE: 612014021P1
Prix:   €100 | $140 | £90 | ¥13000 | MXN140 , Frais de livraison inclus
Disponibilité: Disponible
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Autres versions:  Livre électronique - Format PDF

Titres connexes



Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?

Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication gauges the economic significance of VRE integration impacts, highlights the need for a system-wide approach to integrating high shares of VRE and recommends how to achieve a cost-effective transformation of the power system.

This book summarises the results of the third phase of the Grid Integration of VRE (GIVAR) project, undertaken by the IEA over the past two years. It is rooted in a set of seven case studies, comprising 15 countries on four continents. It deepens the technical analysis of previous IEA work and lays out an analytical framework for understanding the economics of VRE integration impacts. Based on detailed modelling, the impact of high shares of VRE on total system costs is analysed. In addition, the four flexible resources which are available to facilitate VRE integration – generation, grid infrastructure, storage and demand side integration – are assessed in terms of their technical performance and cost-effectiveness.

Tables des matières:

Foreword  3
Acknowledgements 5
Executive summary  13
1.  Introduction 21
Background 21
-Context  21
-The variability challenge 22
-Flexibility  23
-Case study areas  24
-This publication 25
-References  26
2. System impacts of VRE deployment  27
Properties of VRE generators  28
-Power system properties 45
-Integration effects and system adaptation  48
-References 50
3. Technical flexibility assessment of case study regions 53
Overview of case study regions and system attributes  54
-Current and projected VRE deployment levels 56
-Generation levels and short-term forecast 57
-Long-term projections  58
-FAST2 assessment  59
-References  65
4. Costs and benefits: the value of variable renewable energy  67
Social versus private perspective 68
-Going beyond generation costs  68
-Integration costs and the value of VRE 69
-Comparing the value of VRE to generation costs  81
-Other benefits  81
-Summary  82
-References  82
5. System-friendly VRE deployment 85
Timing and location of deployment 86
-VRE system service capabilities 88
-Size of infrastructure and VRE curtailment 90
-Economic design criteria  90
-Technology mix  92
-Policy and market considerations  93
-References 94
6. Operational measures for VRE integration 97
Power plant operations 98
-Transmission and interconnector operation 100
-Balancing area co-operation and integration 101
-Definition and deployment of operating reserves 103
-Visibility and controllability of VRE generation 104
-Forecasting of VRE generation 105
-Market design for operational measures 105
-Policy and market considerations 112
-References 113
7.  Flexibility investment options  115
Measuring costs and benefits of flexible resources 117
-Grid infrastructure 120
-Dispatchable generation 128
-Storage 139
-Demande-side integration 148
-References 158
8.  System transformation and market design 161
VRE growth and system evolution 162
-Strategies for flexibility investments 166
-VRE integration and total system costs 174
-Market design 175
-Discussion 182
-References 184
9.  Conclusions and recommendations 187
Current experience and technical challenges 187
-Economics of VRE integration 188
-System transformation strategies 189
-Catalysing the transformation 195
-Future work 196
-A. LCOF methodology 197
-B. Key modelling assumptions 203
-C. FAST2 assumptions and case study attributes  215
-D. Market design scoring .219
-E. Acronyms and abbreviations 231


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