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PISA 2012 Results: Creative Problem Solving (Volume V)
Students' Skills in Tackling Real-Life Problems
OECD Publishing , Publication date:  09 May 2014
Pages: 252 , Language: English
Version: Print (Paperback) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264208063 , OECD Code: 982014011P1
Price:   €50 | $70 | £45 | ¥6500 | MXN900 , Standard shipping included!
Availability: Available
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Other languages:  French (Forthcoming)
Other Versions:  E-book - PDF Format

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This product is included in:
SET: PISA 2012 Results - (6 volumes) - Package Online and print


This fifth volume of PISA 2012 results presents an assessment of student performance in problem solving, which measures studentsí capacity to respond to non-routine situations in order to achieve their potential as constructive and reflective citizens. It provides the rationale for assessing problem-solving skills and describes  performance within and across countries and economies. In addition, the volume highlights the relative strengths and weaknesses of each school system and examines how they are related to individual student characteristics, such as gender, immigrant background and socio-economic status. The volume also explores the role of education in fostering problem-solving skills.

Table of contents:

Executive Summary 13
Readerís Guide 17
What is PISA? 19
Chapter 1. Assessing Problem-Solving Skills in PISA 2012 25
-Why PISA assesses problem-solving competence 26
-The PISA 2012 approach to assessing student performance in problem solving 29
--A focus on general cognitive processes involved in solving problems 29
--The centrality of interactive problem solving 29
--The PISA definition of problem-solving competence 30
-The PISA 2012 framework for assessing problem-solving competence 31
-The design and delivery of the PISA 2012 computer-based assessment of problem solving 32
--The development of items for the assessment 32
--The structure and delivery of the assessment 32
--The opportunities afforded by computer delivery 33
-Problem-solving tasks 34
--General characteristics of static and interactive problem-solving tasks 34
--Sample tasks from the PISA 2012 problem-solving assessment 35
Chapter 2. Student Performance in Problem Solving 47
-How the PISA 2012 problem-solving results are reported 48
--How the PISA 2012 problem-solving tests were analysed and scaled 48
--How problem-solving proficiency levels are defined in PISA 2012 49
--A profile of PISA problem-solving questions 49
-What students can do in problem solving 51
--Average level of proficiency in problem solving 52
--Students at the different levels of proficiency in problem solving 56
-Variation in problem-solving proficiency 61
--Relationship between performance differences and school- and student-level factors 64
--Comparing between-school variations 66
-Student performance in problem solving compared with performance in mathematics, reading and science 67
--Correlation between performance in mathematics, reading and science, and performance in problem solving 67
--Studentsí performance in problem solving relative to students with similar mathematics, reading and science skills 69
--Studentsí performance in problem solving at different levels of performance in mathematics 70
-The influence of computer delivery on performance in problem solving 73
Chapter 3. Studentsí Strengths and Weaknesses in Problem Solving 77
-Framework aspects and relative success of students in each area 79
--Nature of the problem situation 79
--Problem-solving processes 82
--Problem contexts and response formats 88
-A grouping of countries by their strengths and weaknesses in problem solving 90
Chapter 4. How Problem-Solving Performance Varies within Countries 93
-Performance differences unique to problem solving 94
-Performance differences across study programmes 95
-Gender differences in problem solving 99
--How gender differences in problem-solving performance compare to differences in mathematics, reading and science 100
--Differences in performance patterns across items 102
-The relationship between socio-economic status, immigrant background and problem-solving performance 104
--Performance differences related to socio-economic status 104
--Performance patterns among advantaged and disadvantaged students 108
--Immigrant background and student performance 110
-How studentsí self-reported dispositions towards problem solving relate to performance 111
-How problem-solving performance relates to differences in ICT use across students111
Chapter 5. Implications Of The Problem-Solving Assessment For Policy And Practice 117
-Improve assessments to make learning more relevant
-Empower students to solve problems 120
-Revise school practices and education policies 122
-Learn from curricular diversity and performance differences in problem solving 125
-Reduce gender disparities among top performers 126
-Reduce inequities in education related to socio-economic status 126
Annex A. PISA 2012 Technical background 129
-Annex A1. Indices from the student context questionnaires 130
-Annex A2. The PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools 134
-Annex A3. Technical notes on analyses in this volume145
-Annex A4. Quality assurance 149
-Annex A5. The problem-solving assessment design 150
-Annex A6. Technical note on Brazil 152
Annex B. PISA 2012 Data 153
-Annex B1. Results for countries and economies 154
-Annex B2. Results for regions within countries 224
-Annex B3. List of tables available on line 243
Annex C.  The Development and Implementation of PISA -  A Collaborative Effort 245

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