This first volume of PISA 2012 results summarises the performance of students in PISA 2012. It describes how performance is defined, measured and reported, and then provides results from the assessment, showing what students are able to do in mathematics. After a summary of mathematics performance, it examines the ways in which this performance varies on subscales representing different aspects of mathematics literacy. Given that any comparison of the outcomes of education systems needs to take into consideration countries’ social and economic circumstances, and the resources they devote to education, the volume also presents the results within countries’ economic and social contexts. In addition, the volume examines the relationship between the frequency and intensity of students’ exposure to subject content in school, what is known as “opportunity to learn”, and student performance. The volume concludes with a description of student results in reading and science. Trends in student performance in mathematics between 2003 and 2012, in reading between 2000 and 2012, and in science between 2006 and 2012 are examined when comparable data are available. Throughout the volume, case studies examine in greater detail the policy reforms adopted by countries that have improved in PISA.
Table of contents:
Executive Summary 17 Reader’s Guide 21 Chapter 1. What is PISA? 23 -What does the PISA 2012 survey measure? 25 -Who are the PISA students? 26 -What is the test like? 27 -How is the test conducted? 29 -What kinds of results does the test provide? 29 -Where can you find the results? 29 Chapter 2. A Profile of Student Performance in Mathematics 31 -A context for comparing the mathematics performance of countries and economies 34 -The PISA approach to assessing student performance in mathematics 37 -Student performance in mathematics 46 -Student performance in different areas of mathematics 79 Chapter 4. A Profile of Student Performance in Reading 175 -Student performance in reading 176 -Examples of PISA reading units 203 Chapter 5. A Profile of Student Performance in Science 215 -Student performance in science 216 -Examples of PISA science units 242 Chapter 8. Policy Implications of Student Performance in PISA 2012 251 -Improving average performance 252 -Pursuing excellence 253 -Tackling low performance 254 -Assessing strengths and weaknesses in different kinds of mathematics 254 -Providing equal opportunities for boys and girls 255 Annex A. PISA 2012 Technical background 257 -Annex A1. Indices from the student, school and parent context questionnaires 258 -Annex A2. The PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools 265 -Annex A3. Technical notes on analyses in this volume 277 -Annex A4. Quality assurance 279 -Annex A5. Technical details of trends analyses 280 -Annex A6. Development of the PISA assessment instruments 294 -Annex A7. Technical note on Brazil 295 Annex B.PISA 2012 Data 297 -Annex B1. Results for countries and economies 298 -Annex B2.Results for regions within countries 405 -Annex B3. Results for the computer-based and combined scales for mathematics and reading 491 -Annex B4.Trends in mathematics, reading and science performance 537 Annex C. The Development and Implementation of PISA - A Collaborative Effort 555