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Matching Economic Migration with Labour Market Needs
OECD, European Union. Published by : OECD Publishing , Publication date:  01 Oct 2014
Pages: 384 , Language: English
Version: Print (Paperback) + PDF
ISBN: 9789264216372 , OECD Code: 812014141P1
Price:   €120 | $168 | £108 | ¥15600 | MXN2160 , Standard shipping included!
Availability: Available
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Other languages:  French (Available)
Other Versions:  E-book - PDF Format

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This publication gathers the papers presented at the “OECD-EU dialogue on mobility and international migration: matching economic migration with labour market needs” (Brussels, 24-25 February 2014), a conference jointly organised by the European Commission and the OECD. It provides new evidence on the role that international migration has played in Europe and in selected other OECD countries over the past decade in terms of labour force; educational attainment; and occupational changes. It analyses the availability and use of migrants’ skills based on an in-depth literature review as well as new data analyses for Europe and the United States, Canada and the OECD as a whole, taking advantage of the International Survey of Adult Skills – PIAAC. Finally, several chapters discuss the potential role of international migration in meeting current and future labour market needs in Europe, in the United States and in the European Union. This work shows that although migration can make an important contribution to labour force growth, its role in counterbalancing the effects of population ageing will depend on the capacity of countries to match labour needs to migrants’ characteristics.

Table of contents:

Executive summary 15
Editorial: Turning the corner 17
Chapter 1. Demographic trends, labour market needs and migration
by François Héran 23
-1.1. Introduction 24
-1.2. Conclusion: Learning from the past – Conciliating economic needs and human rights 33
-References 35
Chapter 2. Demographic change and the future of the labour force in the EU27, other OECD countries and selected large emerging economies by Jason Gagnon 37
-2.1. Introduction 38
-2.2. Main findings 38
-2.3. Long-term global demographic trends 39
-2.4. Recent trends in working-age population in the EU27 and other OECD countries  41
-2.5. The labour force: Demographic vs. cohort effects 46
-2.6. Beyond participation: Skills and geographical mismatches 50
-2.7. What role does international migration play? 51
-2.8. Conclusion 56
-References 58
-Annex 2.A1. Supplementary figures 62
Chapter 3. Current and future skills of the workforce: The demography of educational attainment and the role of migration by Josep Mestres 67
-3.1. Introduction 68
-3.2. Educational attainment of the labour force and the role of migration 68
-3.3. Projections of the labour force by educational attainment for 2020 79
-3.4. Conclusion 94
-References 97
-Annex 3.A1. Methodology for estimating the components of demographic change 98
-Annex 3.A2. Methodology for estimating the projected educational attainment of the workforce in 2020 100
Chapter 4. The demography of occupational change and skill use among immigrants and the native-born by Georges Lemaître 111
-4.1. Introduction 112
-4.2. Main findings 112
-4.3. The demography of occupational change 114
-4.4. The extent of occupational change over the decade 2000-10 116
-4.5. Occupational change and intra- and extra-European migration 130
-4.6. Occupational change: The gender dimension 134
-4.7. Conclusion 138
-References 142
-Annex 4.A1. Methodology for estimating the components of demographic change 144
-Annex 4.A2. Occupational change and overqualification 146
Chapter 5.
Immigrant skills, their measurement, use and return: A review of literature by Ana Damas de Matos 153
-5.1. Introduction 154
-5.2. Immigrants’ educational attainment and skills 154
-5.3. Returns to education and skills in the host country labour market 161
-5.4. Explanations for the differences in returns to immigrant and native skills 167
-5.5. Conclusion 173
-References 177
-Annex 5.A1. Educational attainment  183
-Annex 5.A2. Explanatory factors of the difference in returns to education between immigrants and natives 185
Chapter 6. The qualifications of immigrants and their value in the labour market: A comparison of Europe and the United States by Ana Damas de Matos and Thomas Liebig 187
-6.1. Introduction 188
-6.2. The qualifications of immigrants 189
-6.3. The value of immigrants’ qualifications in the labour market 201
-6.4. Selected issues in transferring qualifications from the country of origin to the host country 209
-6.5. Conclusion 213
-References 216
-Annex.6.A1. Supplementary tables and figures 217
Chapter 7. The international portability of migrant human capital: Canadian experiences by Arthur Sweetman 229
-7.1. Introduction 230
-7.2. The Canadian context  231
-7.3. Aspects of skill portability central to labour market outcomes  235
-7.4. Interactions between skills affect portability 241
-7.5. Conclusion 242
-References 246
Chapter 8. Migrants’ skills: Use, mismatch and labour market outcomes – A first exploration of the International Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) by Sara Bonfanti and Theodora Xenogiani  249
-8.1. Introduction 250
-8.2. Description of the data 251
-8.3. Migrants’ skills and how they compare with those of natives 254
-8.4. The labour market outcomes of migrants 268
-8.5. The wages of migrants 288
-8.6. Conclusion 300
-References 305
-Annex 8.A1. Further descriptives and analysis 309
Chapter 9.
Projected labour market imbalances in Europe: Policy challenges in meeting the Europe 2020 employment targets by Cedefop’s Skills Analysis Team under the supervision of Pascaline Descy 315
-9.1. Introduction 316
-9.2. Employment rate gaps in EU member states 317
-9.3. Meeting the EU2020 employment target 318
-9.4. Labour imbalances and the need for activation in EU member states 322
-9.5. Conclusion 326
-References 329
-Annex 9.A1. The Cedefop pan-European forecasting model of skill supply and skill demand 330
Chapter 10. Occupational labour shortages: Underlying concepts and their role in US migration policy by Burt S. Barnow 335
-10.1. Introduction 336
-10.2. Occupational labour shortages in theory and practice 336
-10.3. Using occupational shortage data for immigration and temporary visas 341
-10.4. Conclusion 345
-References 348
Chapter 11. Migration in Europe: An overview of results from the 2008 immigrant module with implications for labour migration by Georges Lemaître 349
-11.1. Introduction 350
-11.2. The data source 350
-11.3. International migration by reason for migrating 352
-11.4. The evolution of the distribution of reasons for migrating by years of residence 354
-11.5. Employment rates by category of entry and their evolution with years of residence 356
-11.6. Occupation skill levels of recent immigrants and overqualification 358
-11.7. Sources of skills 361
-11.8. Job-changing among recent international migrants 365
-11.9. A recapitulation of results from the module 366
-11.10. Policy implications 368
-11.11. Increasing retention 371
-11.12. Increasing the volume of highly skilled migration 372
-11.13. Conclusion 376
-References 379

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