This report focuses on the development of reading proficiency during the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. The span of time between the ages of 15 and 24 is a critical period of development for young people. Once compulsory education is completed, individual decisions about post-secondary education, employment and other life choices have to be made with major consequences for future learning and employment outcomes. A good foundation in reading proficiency facilitates success in specialised education during higher education or during job-related training. Since reading proficiency is not the goal of such specialised or professional learning, reading skills may begin to atrophy. So both learning gains and losses need to be considered as human capital is developed.
Canada’s investments in PISA, as well as in longitudinal data and reassessment of reading proficiency, provides insights into the importance of individual reading proficiency and later outcomes, such as educational attainment, further learning, employment and earnings. Therefore, this report makes a vital contribution to the understanding of learning gains between the ages of 15 and 24 and their impact on such outcomes, and provides a basis for evidence-based policy and strategic investments by the community of countries participating in PISA
Table of contents:
Executive Summary Chapter 1.Introduction -PISA and the PISA re-assessment -A dynamic view of learning -Patterns of skills development -Measurement of learning gains and losses -The importance of good reading proficiency -Value of longitudinal analysis for decision making -International policy lessons Chapter 2.PISA-15, YITS, PISA-24, and the Canadian Context -The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): An overview --Reading proficiency in PISA-15 --Canada’s administration of PISA-15 -Youth in Transition (YITS): An overview --Content in the six cycles -The PISA re-assessment (PISA-24) --Test design --Data quality and analytical power --Regression toward the mean --Overview of Canada and its education systems -Chapter summary and conclusions Chapter 3.Reading proficiency of Canadian youth at ages 15 and 24 -An assessment of reading skills among 24-year-olds and how they relate to skills acquired by the age of 15 -Reading proficiency at ages 15 and 24 -Demographic characteristics and reading proficiency gains between the ages of 15 and 24 --Gender --Immigrant background --Family socio-economic background --Language --Urban and rural schools -Differences in reading proficiency by education and labour-market pathways, ages 15 and 24 --Educational attainment at age 24 --Education pathways --Professional experience at age 24 -Chapter summary and conclusions Chapter 4.Growth in Reading Proficiency Over Time -How do young people’s reading skills evolve after compulsory education -Grade progression and growth in reading skills -Dynamic learning in the context of the PISA reading framework --Improvements in performance across question types in the PISA reading framework --Question difficulty and improvements in performance -Chapter summary and conclusions -Examples of PISA reading units Chapter 5.Proficiency Growth before and after age 15 -Skills growth in PISA-24 -Skills growth and initial reading proficiency at age 15. --The observed relationship between skills at age 15 and skills growth --Adjusting for initial skills with school marks -A conceptual model of improvement in reading proficiency -Positive learning environments before and after age 15 --Supportive family characteristics and individual approaches to learning --Supportive school learning environments -Proficiency growth outside the classroom -What is the net effect of positive early environments? -Chapter summary and conclusions Chapter 6.The effect of education and work pathways on reading proficiency -Life choices and the acquisition of skills -Improvements in reading proficiency, educational attainment and pathways --Educational attainment and growth in reading skills --Educational pathways and growth in reading skills -Educational attainment, work experience, and improvements in reading proficiency -Educational attainment, time spent in education and the acquisition of skills -Learning gains and demographic transitions --Geographic mobility and growth in reading skills --Relationship choices and growth in reading skills -Chapter summary and conclusions Conclusion References Annex A.Technical annex Annex B.Tables of results